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- Alaska Statutes.
- Title 18. Health, Safety, and Housing
- Chapter 15. Disease Control and Threats to Public Health
- Section 385. Isolation and Quarantine.
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. Medical Treatment.
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. Powers of the Department in a Public Health Disaster.
AS 18.15.385. Isolation and Quarantine.
- (a) The department may isolate or quarantine an individual or group of individuals if isolation or quarantine is
the least restrictive alternative necessary to prevent the spread of a contagious or possibly contagious disease to others in accordance
with regulations adopted by the department consistent with the provisions of this section and other law.
- (b) The department shall adhere to the following conditions and standards when isolating or quarantining an
individual or group of individuals:
- (1) isolation and quarantine shall be by the least restrictive means necessary to prevent the spread of a
contagious or possibly contagious disease that poses a significant risk to public health; isolation and quarantine may include
confinement to private homes or other private and public premises; absent exceptional circumstances that would jeopardize public health,
a person shall be allowed to choose confinement in the person's home;
- (2) isolated individuals shall be confined separately from quarantined individuals;
- (3) the health status of an isolated or quarantined individual shall be monitored regularly to determine whether
the individual continues to require isolation or quarantine;
- (4) if a quarantined individual subsequently becomes infected or is reasonably believed to have become infected
with a contagious or possibly contagious disease, the individual shall promptly be removed to isolation;
- (5) the department shall immediately terminate an isolation and quarantine order when an individual poses no
substantial risk of transmitting a contagious or possibly contagious disease to others.
- (c) The department may authorize a health care practitioner, public health agent, or another person access to an
individual in isolation or quarantine as necessary to meet the needs of the isolated or quarantined individual. An individual who enters
isolation or quarantine premises with or without authorization of the department may be isolated or quarantined if needed to protect the
- (d) Before quarantining or isolating an individual, the department shall obtain a written order from the
superior court authorizing the isolation or quarantine, unless the individual consents to the quarantine or isolation. The department
shall file a petition for a written order under this subsection. The petition must
- (1) allege
- (A) the identity of each individual proposed to be quarantined or isolated;
- (B) the premises subject to isolation or quarantine;
- (C) the date and time the isolation or quarantine is to begin;
- (D) the suspected contagious disease;
- (E) that the individual poses a significant risk to public health;
- (F) whether testing, screening, examination, treatment, or related procedures are necessary;
- (G) that the individual is unable or unwilling to behave so as not to expose other individuals to danger of infection; and
- (H) that the department is complying or will comply with (b) of this section; and
- (2) be accompanied by an affidavit signed by a state medical officer attesting to the facts asserted in the
petition, including specific facts supporting the allegations required by (1)(D) and (G) of this subsection; the petition shall be
personally served according to court rules, along with notice of the time and place of the hearing under (f) of this section.
- (e) Notwithstanding (d) of this section, when the department has probable cause to believe that the delay
involved in seeking a court order imposing isolation or quarantine would pose a clear and immediate threat to the public health and
isolation or quarantine is the least restrictive alternative and is necessary to prevent the spread of a contagious or possibly
contagious disease, a state medical officer in the department may issue an emergency administrative order to temporarily isolate or
quarantine an individual or group of individuals. An emergency administrative order of temporary quarantine or isolation by a state
medical officer is enforceable by any peace officer in the state. Within 24 hours after implementation of the emergency administrative
order, the department shall notify the superior court by filing a petition under (d) of this section that also alleges that the
emergency action was necessary to prevent or limit the transmission of a contagious or possibly contagious disease to others that would
pose an immediate threat to the public health. The petition must be signed by a state medical officer.
- (f) An individual served with a petition under (d) of this section or an emergency administrative order to
temporarily isolate or quarantine under (e) of this section has the right to a court hearing. The court shall hold a hearing within 48
hours after a petition is filed. The department may request a continuance of the hearing for up to five days. The court may grant the
continuance for good cause shown and in extraordinary circumstances, giving due regard to the rights of the affected individuals, the
protection of the public health, the severity of the need for isolation or quarantine, and other evidence. During a continuance, an
isolated or quarantined individual shall remain in isolation or quarantine. The court may order the consolidation of individual claims
into group claims if the number of individuals affected is so large as to render individual participation impractical, there are
questions of law or fact common to the individual claims or rights to be determined, the group claims or rights are typical of the
affected individuals' claims or rights, and the entire group can be adequately represented. The public shall be excluded from a hearing
under this section unless the individual elects to have the hearing open under (g)(2) of this section.
- (g) During the hearing, the individual has the right to
- (1) view and copy all petitions and reports in the court file of the individual's case;
- (2) elect to have the hearing open to the public;
- (3) have the rules of evidence and civil procedure applied so as to provide for the informal but efficient presentation of evidence;
- (4) have an interpreter if the individual does not understand English;
- (5) present evidence on the individual's behalf;
- (6) cross-examine witnesses who testify against the individual;
- (7) call experts and other witnesses to testify on the individual's behalf; and
- (8) participate in the hearing; under this paragraph, participation may be by telephone if the individual
presents a substantial risk of transmitting a contagious or possibly contagious disease to others.
- (h) At the conclusion of the hearing, the court may commit the individual to isolation or quarantine for not
more than 30 days if the court finds, by clear and convincing evidence, that the isolation or quarantine is necessary to prevent or
limit the transmission to others of a disease that poses a significant risk to the public health. The court may issue other orders as
necessary. Orders are enforceable by a peace officer of this state. The order must
- (1) identify the isolated or quarantined individual or group of individuals by name or shared or similar
characteristics or circumstances;
- (2) specify factual findings warranting isolation or quarantine under this section;
- (3) include any conditions necessary to ensure that isolation or quarantine is carried out within the
stated purposes and restrictions of this section; and
- (4) be served on the affected individual or group of individuals in accordance with existing court rules.
- (i) Before the expiration of an order issued under (h) of this section, the court may continue isolation or
quarantine for additional periods not to exceed 30 days upon a showing by the department by clear and convincing evidence that the
action is necessary to prevent or limit the transmission to others of a disease that poses a significant risk to the public health.
- (j) An isolated or quarantined individual or group of individuals may apply to the court for an order to show
cause why isolation or quarantine should not be terminated. The court shall rule on the application to show cause within 48 hours after
filing. An isolated or quarantined individual or group of individuals may request a hearing in the court for remedies regarding breaches
of the conditions of isolation or quarantine. A request for a hearing may not stay or enjoin an isolation or quarantine order. Where
extraordinary circumstances justify the immediate granting of relief, the court shall fix a date for hearing on the alleged matters
within 24 hours after receipt of the request. Otherwise, the court shall fix a date for hearing on the alleged matters within five days
after receipt of a request.
- (k) The provisions of this section apply to minors. All notices required to be served on an individual shall also
be served on the parents or guardians of an individual who is an unemancipated minor.
- (l) The department shall adopt regulations to protect, as much as possible, the privacy rights of individuals
subject to isolation or quarantine under this section.
- (m) The department may quarantine or isolate individuals who have been exposed to hazardous materials that can
cause serious illness or injury by transmission of the hazardous material to others. The provisions of this section concerning isolation
and quarantine of individuals to prevent the spread of contagious or possibly contagious diseases shall apply to isolation or quarantine
of individuals who have been exposed to hazardous materials.
- (n) A person who knowingly violates this section or a regulation adopted under this section is guilty of a class B
misdemeanor. In this subsection, "knowingly" has the meaning given in AS 11.81.900 (a).
- (o) A person who intentionally violates this section or a regulation adopted under this section is guilty of a class A
misdemeanor. In this subsection, "intentionally" has the meaning given in AS 11.81.900 (a).
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